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Abstract: The current conservation status and distribution of the West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea) in the Dominican Republic is reviewed— Evaluation of historical and recent available data indicates that existing populations are found in six major lowland regions of the country, primarily along coastal areas, with the exception of two inland ranges. Even with highle fragmented habitats and local extirpations from specific localities most historical areas continue to support populations, which at present appear to be declining in most localities. The primary causes for population declines are conversion and environmental degradation of wetland habitats because of increasing pressure from development activities. While pressures for socioeconomic development become more demanding, effective conservation action have hampered primarily by the lack of adequate political support for the development and implementation of sound biodiversity conservation and development planning policies, both at national and regional levels. These conditions will be essential to promote extirpation of institutional weakness and the strengthening of wildlife agencies to allow effective enforcement of protective regulations concerning the species and its critical habitats. Furthermore, there is a lack of detailed information about the species' current population densities, trends and extent of remaining natural range, conservation problems limiting numbers and habitat quality, and about its natural history and ecology.