Independent Geographic Origins of the Genus <em>Amazona</em> in the West Indies

Main Article Content

Patricia Ottens-Wainright
Kenneth M. Halanych
Jessica R. Eberhard
Rachel I. Burke
James W. Wiley
Rosemarie S. Gnam
Xiomara Gálvez Aqualera

Keywords

Birds, Parrots, Amazona, Cytochrome b, Phylogeny,

Abstract

Abstract.?Nine species of the parrot genus Amazona are endemic to the Greater Antilles, Bahamas, and Cayman Islands (A. leucocephala, A. agilis, A. collaria, A. ventralis, A. vittata) and Lesser Antilles (A. guildingii, A. imperialis, A. arausiaca, A. versicolor). Populations of one species, A. leucocephala, colonized Cuba, Bahamas, and Cayman Islands resulting in five subspecies. Biogeographic relationships of these Antillean Amazona were examined by a reconstruction of their evolutionary history: mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data were analyzed with maximum likelihood, parsimony, and distance methods. Phylogenetic analyses show a distinct divergence of the smaller and mostly green Greater Antillean Amazona from the larger, more colorful Lesser Antillean species, and imply that they colonized the West Indies independently. This phylogenetic reconstruction was used to trace potential dispersal routes of ancestral Amazona into the West Indies. The species distribution found today in the Lesser Antilles may have been the result of at least two colonization events from South America, one or more of which occurred early in the history of this genus. Data from this study also suggest that there may have been two dispersal events to the Greater Antilles. The Greater Antillean species appear closely related to the small A. albifrons of Central America. Evolutionary relationships within the A. leucocephala subspecies complex suggest that A. l. bahamensis and A. l. caymanensis were the first populations of this species to become genetically isolated. Isolation of populations on Cuba (A. l. palmarum and A. l. leucocephala) occurred later.

 

Resumen.?LOS ORÍGENES GEOGRÁFICOS INDEPENDIENTES DEL GÉNERO AMAZONA EN LAS ANTILLAS. Nueve especies de cotorras del género Amazona son endémicas en las Antillas Mayores, Bahamas y las islas Caimán (A. leucocephala, A. agilis, A. collaria, A. ventralis, A. vittata) y las Antillas Menores (A. guildingii, A. imperialis, A. arausiaca, A. versicolor). Poblaciones de una especie, A. leucocephala, colonizaron Cuba, Bahamas y las islas Caimánn resultando en cinco subespecies. Las relaciones biogeográficas de las especies de Amazona de las Antillas fueron examinadas por medio de una reconstrucción de su historia evolutiva: secuencias de citocromo b mitocondrial fueron analizadas utilizando métodos de parsimonia, máxima verosimilitud y de distancia. Análisis filogenéticos muestran una marcada divergencia entre las especies de las Antillas Mayores, que tienen menor tamaño corporal y plumaje predominantemente verde, y las especies de las Antillas Menores, que tienen plumajes más coloridos. Esta divergencia implica que los dos grupos colonizaron los Antilles independientemente. Esta reconstrucción filogenética fue utilizada para trazar rutas potenciales de dispersión de las Amazona ancestrales por las Antillas. La presente distribución de especies en las Antillas Menores podría ser resultado de por lo menos dos colonizaciones desde Sudamérica, y por lo menos una de éstas ocurrió temprano en la historia del género. Datos de este estudio también sugieren la posibilidad de dos eventos de dispersión a las Antillas Mayores. Las especies de las Antillas Mayores están estrechamente relacionadas con A. albifrons, una especie relativamente pequeña de Centroamérica. Relaciones evolutivas dentro del complejo de A. leucocephala sugieren que A. l. bahamensis y A. l. caymanensis fueron las primeras poblaciones de esta especie en aislarse genéticamente. El aislamiento de las poblaciones de Cuba (A. l. palmarum y A. l. leucocephala) ocurrió más tarde.

 

Résumé.? ORIGINES GÉOGRAPHIQUES INDÉPENDANTES CHEZ LE GENRE AMAZONA DANS LES ANTILLES. Neuf espèces de perroquets du genre Amazona sont endémiques des Grandes Antilles, des Bahamas et des îles Cayman (A. leucocephala, A. agilis, A. collaria, A. ventralis, A. vittata) et des Petites Antilles (A. guildingii, A. imperialis, A. arausiaca, A. versicolor). Des populations d?une espèce, A. leucocephala, ont colonisé Cuba, les Bahamas et les îles Cayman, donnant naissance à cinq sous-espèces. Les relations biogéographiques entre ces amazones antillaises ont été étudiées par la reconstruction de leur histoire évolutive. Les données de séquences du cytochrome b mitochondrial ont été étudiées par les méthodes du maximum de vraisemblance, de parcimonie et de distance. Les analyses phylogénétiques montrent une divergence entre les amazones des Grandes Antilles, plus petites et à dominante verte, et les espèces plus grandes et colorées des Petites Antilles, ce qui indiquent qu?elles ont colonisé les Antilles indépendamment. Cette reconstruction phylogénétique a été utilisée pour tracer les routes potentielles de dispersion des amazones ancestrales dans les Antilles. La distribution des espèces observées aujourd?hui dans les Antilles pourrait être le résultat d?au moins deux événements de colonisation depuis l?Amérique du Sud, l’un d?entre eux, ou plusieurs, étant survenu très précocement dans l?histoire du genre. Les données de cette étude suggè- rent qu?il pourrait y avoir eu aussi deux événements de dispersion dans Les Grandes Antilles. Les espèces des Grandes Antilles apparaissent étroitement reliées au petit A. albifrons d?Amérique Centrale. Les relations évolutives du complexe de sous-espèces de A. leucocephala suggèrent que A. l. bahamensis et A. l. caymanensis ont été les premières populations de cette espèce à avoir été génétiquement isolées. L?isolement des populations de Cuba (A. l. palmarum et A. l. leucocephala) est survenue plus tard.

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