Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships Among the Wood Warblers (<em>Parulidae</em>) and Historical Biogeography in the Caribbean Basin

Main Article Content

Nedra K. Klein
Kevin J. Burns
Shannon J. Hackett
Carole S. Griffiths

Keywords

Wood Warblers,

Abstract

Abstract.?Although diversification and adaptive radiation of birds on archipelagoes have served as exemplars of the evolutionary process, prior attention has focused on the avifauna of the Hawaiian and Galapagos Islands, with little attention paid to West Indian species. One group of birds that includes several Caribbean endemics is the family of Wood Warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae). This family contains some of the best-studied avian species in North America, lacking only an historical context for comparing behavior and ecology of the species. A phylogeny for this group would also provide an objective basis for inferring the evolutionary origins of some of the endemic West Indian bird species. In this paper we present the results of a phylogenetic analysis of relationships among parulid genera and species using DNA sequences (1140 base pairs) from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of this study indicate that the family Parulidae is not monophyletic. Perhaps the most significant finding is that many of the currently recognized genera are also not monophyletic. These include Dendroica, Seiurus, Vermivora, Wilsonia, and Parula. Also of significance is the evidence found that morphologically divergent species in this region represent previously unrecognized adaptive radiations. Finally, we identify the first example of intra-island adaptive radiation proposed for any of the West Indian avifauna. This involves a well-supported clade in Hispaniola, including the Black-crowned Palm-Tanager (Phaenicophilus palmarum), the Green-tailed Warbler (Microligea palustris), and the White-winged Warbler (Xenoligea montana). Evidence of intra-island adaptive radiation has important implications for understanding historical biogeography of the Caribbean region.

 

Resumen.?RELACIONES MOLECULARES FILOGENÉTICAS ENTRE LAS REINITAS DE BOSQUE (PARULIDAE) Y BIOGEOGRAFÍA HISTÓRICA EN LA CUENCA DEL CARIBE. Aunque la diversificación y la radiación adaptiva de las aves en los archipiélagos han servido como ejemplos del proceso evolutivo, previamente la atención se ha centrado en la avifauna de las islas Hawai y las Galápagos, con poca atención prestada a las especies de las Indias Occidentales. Un grupo de aves que incluye varios endemismos caribeños es la familia de las reinitas de bosque (Passeriformes: Parulidae). Esta familia contiene algunas de las especies mejor estudiadas en América del Norte, careciendo solamente de un contexto histórico para comparar el comportamiento y la ecología de las especies. Una filogenia para este grupo también proporcionaría una base objetiva para deducir los orígenes evolutivos de algunas de las especies de aves endémicas a las Indias Occidentales. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de un análisis filogenético de las relaciones entre géneros y especies de parúlidos usando secuencias de ADN (1140 bases pares) del gen del citocromo b mitocondrial. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la familia Parulidae no es monofilética. Quizás el hallazgo más significativo es que muchos de los géneros actualmente reconocidos tampoco son monofiléticos. Éstos incluyen Dendroica, Seiurus, Vermivora, Wilsonia y Parula. También de importancia es la evidencia que indica que las especies morfológicamente divergentes en esta región representan radiaciones adaptivas previamente desconocidas. Finalmente, identificamos el primer ejemplo de radiación adaptiva intra-isla jamás propuesto para cualquier avifauna de las Indias Occidentales, un clado bien respaldado por datos en La Española con la Tangara Palmera Coroninegra (Phaenicophilus palmarum), la Reinita Coliverde (Microligea palustris), y la Reinita Aliblanca (Xenoligea montana). La evidencia de la radiación adaptiva intra-isla tiene implicaciones importantes para entender la biogeografía histórica de la región del Caribe.

 

Résumé.?PHYLOGÉNIE MOLÉCULAIRE CHEZ LES PARULINES (PARULIDAE) ET BIOGÉOGRAPHIE HISTORIQUE DANS LE BASSIN CARAÏBE. Bien que la diversification et la radiation adaptative des oiseaux dans les archipels aient servi d?exemple pour la compréhension des processus d?évolution, l?attention s?est jusqu?à présent portée sur l?avifaune des îles Hawaii et des Galapagos, avec peu d?intérêt pour les espèces des Antilles. La famille des parulines (Passériformes : Parulidae) est un groupe d?oiseaux qui comporte plusieurs espèces endémiques caraïbe. Elle comporte certaines des espèces d?oiseaux les mieux connues d?Amérique du Nord, manquant juste de mise en perspective du contexte historique pour comparer leur comportement et leur écologie. Une phylogénie de ce groupe donnerait une base objective pour traiter des origines évolutives de certaines espèces endémiques des Caraïbes. Nous présentons ici les résultats d?une analyse phylogénétique des relations entre les genres et les espèces de parulines en utilisant le séquençage de l?ADN (1140 paires de bases) du gène du cytochrome b. Les résultats indiquent que la famille Parulidae n?est pas monophylétique. Le résultat peut-être le plus significatif est que beaucoup des genres actuellement reconnus ne le sont pas non plus. Ceux-ci comportent les genres Dendroica, Seiurus, Vermivora, Wilsonia et Parula. Un autre résultat d?importance est qu?il a été trouvé que des espèces morphologiquement divergentes de la région représentent des radiations adaptatives auparavant non reconnues. Enfin, nous avons identifié le premier exemple de radiation adaptative intra île proposée pour une espèce d?oiseaux. Il s?agit d?un clade bien caractérisé à Hispaniola qui comprend le Tangara à couronne noire (Phaenicophilus palmarum), la Paruline aux yeux rouges (Microligea palustris) et la Paruline à ailes blanches (Xenoligea montana). La démonstration de radiation adaptative intra insulaire a d?importantes répercussions pour comprendre l?histoire de la biogéographie de la région caraïbe.


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